Category: War


Martin Geddes: The Digital Coup and the Great Exposure

Posted on 11/30/2020 by EraOfLight  — Leave a reply

In the next few weeks, the awful truth about the recent US election and the attempted theft of the Presidency from the People will become impossible to ignore. The Director of NationalIntelligence is tasked with delivering his assessment of the integrity of the election within 45 days — the deadline being December 18th. Other lawsuits and events are progressing in the interim.

We are already witnessing the run-up to the disclosure of fraud and foreign interference prior to the December 14th electoral college vote. Fraud vitiates everything and annuls the Biden candidacy; foreign interference makes this a matter of military law. You are going to see a mass treason event and huge numbers of people brought to justice. This wasn’t really an election; it was a military intelligence sting operation against a corrupt establishment.

There are very objective reasons to believe that this election was NOT won legitimately by Joe Biden:

  • The candidate: Joe Biden had previously stood for the Presidency, found to be a liar about his past, and self-declared himself unfit for the role on national TV. Uncharismatic, with few notable achievements, and liable to fondle children in public — not qualities that endear you to the masses. Furthermore, he had a miasma of corruption around him linked to both China and Ukraine.
  • The party: The Democratic party had alienated large swathes of its traditional base through support for violent uprisings in cities it controlled (via BLM and Antifa), conducted with the tacit approval of its leaders. Failed attempts to unseat Donald Trump (“Russian Collusion” damp squib and Impeachment failure) had damaged its reputation for political competence.
  • The campaign: Donald Trump had repeatedly filled arenas and generated wild enthusiasm from his supporters with his rallies, whereas Joe Biden was notoriously unable to summon crowds. He essentially abandoned campaigning during the last ten days, and demonstrated very low levels of energy, and poor mental focus in his speeches.
  • The process: The Dominion voting machines were not under the control of Americans, and their own manuals and processes demonstrate extremely poor security and features to manually manipulate votes. The synchronised halting of counting in key states, and sudden “discovery” of huge numbers of Biden votes, is automatically a cause for alarm. More votes were counted than the machines could process in the time available.
  • The outcome: There are many staggering anomalies in the outcome — from the tiny number of counties won, the weird geographical distribution of cities won, the unprecedented size of the Biden vote (especially compared to Obama), Trump “losing” despite raising his vote, the implausible total support for Biden from military votes, the contradiction of the Presidency (Democratic) with the House vote (Republican seats all held).
  • The investigation: We are already seeing large numbers of affidavits sworn that testify to fraud, video evidence of ballots being mishandled and destroyed, large irregularities in following the lawful processes of the election, and obvious failures to pass basic statistical tests for legitimacy (like Benford’s Law).
  • The justice: President Trump has issued a specific executive order in anticipation of this election and the need to expose all the corruption in the civilian justice system, as well as the illegitimacy of many past elections in the USA and worldwide. All the clues are there for those with the eyes to see of a highly managed and planned process. This includes the expanded means for delivering the death penalty for treason.

The unavoidable picture that is emerging is one of a Digital Coup. The rogue intelligence agencies in the US and elsewhere had perfected a toolkit for “colour revolutions”. This included sophisticated election hacking, designed to deliver the desired result in a highly plausible manner. The Dominion voting solution was not for vote counting, but for election fraud — by design.

These tools were deployed against the US population in an illegal act of war. There is evidence of involvement by both China and Iran; other powers may also be exposed, including supposed allies, if the Russiagate precedent tells us anything. The enormous Trump landslide was outside of the range the fraud systems were configured for, which caused a panic insertion of fake paper ballots and extreme and obvious levels of digital “vote switching”.

° ° °

I get to watch various tech industry email discussion lists and WhatsApp groups. These are overwhelmingly dominated by Biden voters. They are currently in a bubble disconnected from the reality of events past and present. This bubble is about to burst. Many of their political idols will be executed for treason, or spend life in prison for sedition. There is wisdom in advice not to worship idols.

For my tech industry associates, you need to understand that the controlled mass media is gaslighting you, and deliberately pushing a desperate false narrative to cover for their own criminality. They say “no evidence of fraud” and “unsubstantiated” allegations, even as that hard evidence mounts up in court filings and open source intelligence analysis. There are districts with more votes than voters, yet you believe self-evident lies from your TV.

You have been hoodwinked by a system of social engineering that was covertly established, mainly after the 1963 de facto coup following the assassination of President Kennedy, and installation of a permanent criminal shadow government.

Today, Biden voters are celebrating his being the media’s “President elect” (hint: the media has no constitutional role in elections); the funding of his transition (hint: another sting operation); and Trump’s imminent departure from the White House (hint: he has planned this operation for decades and isn’t going anywhere). My former tech industry associates are utterly delusional in their beliefs.

There is absolutely no way that the US military would have spent years tangibly preparing us for this watershed event, including bringing Trump into the Presidency, only to allow assets of the Chinese Communist Party to (re)take control over the United States of America. It just isn’t happening. These celebrations will be short lived as the “boomerang” motion of the vast sting operation becomes unmistakable and unavoidable.

° ° °

If you voted for Joe Biden and are trying to make sense of dislocating events unfolding fast, here is where you have gone wrong.

Firstly, you have excluded from your inputs all rival voices and competing sources of information. You have immersed yourself in a narcissistic culture of self-congratulatory presumed superiority based on egotistical intellectual achievement. By the time you read this, you will be witnessing that belief system crashing and burning; pride smashed by the fall. You drove out the diversity that mattered, which was a diversity of opinion and social understanding. You were intolerant of dissent, and tolerant of censorship. This will remain a stain upon your conscience and reputation until you respect those who saw the criminality and spoke out.

Secondly, you have failed to understand the nature of propaganda, and how clever intellectual people are the MOST susceptible, not the LEAST. You NEED propaganda in order to have a socially acceptable position on each issue; nobody has time to become a climate scientist, vaccine safety expert, and forensic accountant and research every controversy. You have treated different media outlets as independent sources when in reality they are all one (false) voice. You are a victim of pervasive propaganda and even mind control.

Thirdly, you have abandoned objective rational empirical inquiry. You have assumed that (local social) consensus is rationality, and deviation from that consensus is madness — a cult even. You have ridiculed and mocked those who chose to look at the data — ALL THE DATA — and then make up their mind ONLY based on where it directed them, and not their preconception of what was thinkable or acceptable. This is the basis of proper science, and requires humility to recognise that progress is made by admitting errors and reversing false beliefs.

° ° °

I looked at ALL the data in this case, and changed my beliefs. You DID NOT, and stayed the same. This is why you have FAILED this test of sanity. Such failure needs to be confronted — because your false beliefs are dangerous to us all, since they perpetuate evil. The “short cut” the media (and academia) offered you was to a labyrinth of lies by assets of a criminal ruling class. You swallowed their lies willingly.

It was previously always easy to find a justification for your beliefs, another propaganda “talking point” to counter any data offered. A sneering and condescending attitude let you easily dismiss legitimate concerns as “extremist” or “conspiracy theories”. By the time you read this, that’s all finished. Gone. Over.

That you have been attacked by a ruthless transnational “supermafia” armed with weaponised psychology and a whole media industry is not your fault. That others had life experiences or innate character that brought them to question the “official narrative” more quickly is also not their personal virtue. You are not my enemy, and I am not yours. Our job is to come together, respectfully and responsibly, so that we may realign and heal.

For those who were deceived by the grand illusions on offer, you will find that those you laughed at will most likely welcome you back with open arms. The precondition is that you respect equality under the rule of law, and cease to put yourself on a pedestal where you are part of a superior social class entitled to judge others and look down upon them. It is time for you to be held to your stated values of kindness, tolerance, and inclusion.

For we all have a real war to fight against a real enemy who can do us real harm. A war of infiltration, founded on treachery, that has corroded and corrupted our society. A war against great deceptions that fuel endless violent conflict.

The Great Exposure has begun. It cannot be stopped by anybody. Lasting peace is our goal and prize.

Please unify with those who are already fighting for truth and justice.

You can sign up for Martin’s newsletter here.

Reference: https://eraoflight.com/2020/11/30/martin-geddes-the-digital-coup-and-the-great-exposure/

For Those Who are FrustratedFor those who are frustrated

By James Wearing Smith, 9th May 2020

For those who are frustrated, confused and perhaps feeling lost or scared today and who may like to put their present predicament into a brief historical perspective, reflection can be a great health benefit, possibly better than any spurious vaccine, and certainly better than watching the latest drama series peppered with inuendo and conditioning dialogue.

Imagine you if were born in 1900 …  At the age of 14, World War I; you’re witnessing the beginning of a brutal and vicious war said to last until you are 18; they say 22 million people died in WWI. At the end of the year, an epidemic known as the Spanish flu hits the planet and lasts until your 20th year in life;  they say, 50 million people died from influenza in those two years. In 1929, by which time you’re 29, the Great Depression begins: Unemployment reaches 25%, world GDP falls 27% and the challenges persist until you’re at least 33 years old.

History books say the world almost collapses; the world economy generated multitudes of unemployed and hopelessness (a bit like today). By the time you’re 39 years old, World War II begins (and you’re probably thinking ‘Why is all this happening in my lifetime?’).

By your 41st birthday, the United States enters WWII. Between the ages of 39 and 45 years old, if you were one of the “chosen ones”, you get drafted into the military to fight against people the Government says are your enemies; you are forced to assist the ‘Global War Effort’ (often against one’s personal wishes), and if you are really “lucky”, you actually survive; they say 75 million people died in that war.

Close to your 50th birthday, the Korean War begins; they say, 5 million died. At 55, the American War (aka Vietnam War) begins and does not end for 20 years: they say, 4 million people are declared officially dead in that conflict.

By the time you are 62, you are witnessing the Cuban Missile Crisis and threats of nuclear Armageddon and the Cold War. Russia and the USA, at loggerheads, however ‘miraculously’ the leaders step back from their seemingly intractable positions, and the world doesn’t end.

Life on our planet as we know it might have ended then, but here we are alive and still fighting wars, decades later. If you’re still alive, you’ve attained the age of 75, and US President Richard Nixon declares the Vietnam War to be over and pulled their troops out very quickly.

More Black Ops, covert wars and “hot wars” have erupted since and propagated the planet; African countries, Afghanistan, Columbia, Middle Eastern countries, Iraq, Libya, Syria, and on… Propaganda, lies, Fake News and media manipulation spirals to a level to make you want to shut off and shut out everything coming into your personal space… now, you’re being told a global pandemic virus, which attacks everyone with elderly people more susceptible to dying from disease could wipe you out. You’re being told to stay in-doors and when venturing outside you’re being persecuted if you come into physical contact with others.

You’re thinking, I’ve made it this far, I’m tired and I need a rest… I’m getting old, I am old, I’m 120  years old!

And yet, because you’ve made it all this way, you’re also thinking… “This is nonsense, if I die, it’s because it’s my time to move on. Many haven’t lived as long!” Difficult times create strong men and women, strong people and communities create harmony.

When times are easy, people often become lazy, ignorant and fragile. Those who contribute to creating the difficult times are not to be admired. Those who have fought through difficult times, and those who overcame the difficulties and challenges and survived are the real heroes.

Life is a cycle and we will have to go through our own difficult times, we can choose to fight, we can choose to do this together and we can choose to remain strong in order to create lasting peace and prosperity for all … Look back on the past, learn from it, and work together to keep building a truly nicer, happier, cleaner, more transparent world for future generations.

James With, 9th May 2020

Pathological Deception0.0911

WWIII 2.0
WWIII Pathological Deception

The original articles of this compilation are sourced from The Saker

“Americans should know by now that their country’s wars are fertile ground for biased, one-sided, xenophobic, fake news and the United States has been in a permanent state of war since 1941.”

Part 1 – American Imperialism Leads the World into Dante’s Vision of Hell

Posted on Apr 24, 2017 by Paul Fitzgerald and Elizabeth Gould

 

Dante's Divine Comedy

Lasciate ogne speranza, voi ch’intrate. (Abandon all hope ye who enter here.)” — Dante, “The Divine Comedy,” Inferno (Part 1), Canto 3, Line 9

Part 2 – How Neocons Push for War by Cooking the Books

Posted on Apr 24, 2017 by Paul Fitzgerald and Elizabeth Gould

An 1898 cartoon opinion for war by Leon Barritt

An 1898 cartoon features newspaper publishers Joseph Pulitzer and William Randolph Hearst dressed as a cartoon character of the day, a satire of their papers’ role in drumming up U.S. public opinion for war by Leon Barritt (Wikimedia))

Part 3 – How the CIA Created a Fake Western Reality for ‘Unconventional Warfare’

Posted on Apr 26, 2017 by Paul Fitzgerald and Elizabeth Gould

The Evil Spirits of the Modern Day Press

“The Evil Spirits of the Modern Day Press”. Puck US magazine 1888 https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Puck112188c.jpg ) [Public domain] via Wikimedia Commons

Part 4 – The Final Stage of the Machiavellian Elites’ Takeover of America

Posted on Apr 27, 2017 by Paul Fitzgerald and Elizabeth Gould

1550 edition of Machiavelli’s Il Principe and La Vita di Castruccio Castracani da Lucca

Cover of the 1550 edition of Machiavelli’s Il Principe and La Vita di Castruccio Castracani da Lucca. public domain wiki commons https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Machiavelli_Principe_Cover_Page.jpg

Collectively republished on 10th May 2017: http://thesaker.is/the-history-of-the-neocon-takeover-of-the-usa-a-4-part-analysis/

War is a frivolous waste of resources spurred on by frivolous greedy mongers…

Photo by Stefan Krasowski | CC BY 2.0

We are fighting in Korea so we won’t have to fight in Wichita, or in Chicago, or in New Orleans, or in San Francisco Bay.

— President Harry S Truman, 1952

Why has this tiny nation of 24 million people invested so much of its limited resources in acquiring nuclear weapons? North Korea is universally condemned as a bizarre and failed state, its nuclear posture denounced as irrational.

Yet North Korea’s stance cannot be separated out from its turbulent history during the 20th Century, especially its four decade long occupation by Japan, the forced division of the Korean peninsula after World War II, and, of course, the subsequent utterly devastating war with the United States from 1950-1953 that ended in an armistice in which a technical state of war still exists.

Korea is an ancient nation and culture, achieving national unity in 608 CE, and despite its near envelopment by gigantic China it has retained its own unique language and traditions throughout its recorded history. National independence came to an end in 1910 after five years of war when Japan, taking advantage of Chinese weakness, invaded and occupied Korea using impressed labor for the industries Japan created for the benefit of its own economy. As always the case for colonization the Japanese easily found collaborators among the Korean elite Koreans to manage their first colony.

Naturally a nationalist resistance movement emerged rapidly and, given the history of the early 20th Century, it was not long before communists began to play a significant role in Korea’s effort to regain its independence. The primary form of resistance came in the form of “peoples’ committees” which became deeply rooted throughout the entire peninsula, pointedly in the south as well. It was from these deeply political and nationalistic village and city committees that guerrilla groups engaged the Japanese throughout WWII. The parallels with similar organizations in Vietnam against the Japanese, and later against the French and Americans, are obvious. Another analogous similarity is that Franklin Roosevelt also wanted a Great Power trusteeship for Korea, as for Vietnam. Needless to say both Britain and France objected to this plan.

When Russia entered the war against Japanese in August of 1945 the end of Japanese rule was at hand regardless of the atomic bomb. As events turned out Japan surrendered on 15 August when Soviet troops had occupied much of the northern peninsula. It should be noted that American forces played no role in the liberation of Korea from Japanese rule. However, because the Soviets, as allies of the U.S., wished to remain on friendly terms they agreed to the division of Korea between Soviet and American forces. The young Dean Rusk, later to become Secretary of State under Kennedy and Johnson, arbitrarily drew a line of division across the 38th Parallel because, as he said, that would leave the capital city, Seoul, in the American zone.

Written reports at the time criticized Washington for “allowing” the Red Army into Korea but the fact was it was the other way around. The Soviets could easily have occupied the entirety of Korea but chose not to do so, instead opting for a negotiated settlement with the U.S. over the future of Korea. Theoretically the peninsula would be reunited after some agreement between the two victors at some future date.

However, the U.S. immediately began to favor those Koreans who had collaborated with the Japanese in the exploitation of their own country and its people, largely the landed elites, and Washington began to arm the provisional government it set up to root out the peoples’ committees. For their part the Soviets supported the communist nationalist leader, Kim Il-Sung who had led the guerrilla army against Japan at great cost in lives.

In 1947 the United Nations authorized elections in Korea, but the election monitors were all American allies so the Soviets and communist Koreans refused to participate. By then the Cold War was in full swing, the critical alliance between Washington and Moscow that had defeated Nazi Germany had already been sundered. As would later also occur in Vietnam in 1956, the U.S. oversaw elections only in the south of Korea and only those candidates approved by Washington. Syngman Rhee became South Korea’s first president protected by the new American armed and trained Army of the Republic of Korea. This ROK was commanded by officers who had served the Japanese occupation including one who had been decorated by Emperor Hirohito himself and who had tried to track down and kill Kim Il Sung for the Japanese.

With Korea thus seemingly divided permanently both Russian and American troops withdrew in 1948 though they left “advisers” behind. On both sides of the new artificial border pressures mounted for a forcible reunification. The fact remained that much of rural southern Korea was still loyal to the peoples committees. This did not necessarily mean that they were committed communists but they were virulent nationalists who recognized the role that Kim’s forces had played against the Japanese. Rhee’s forces then began to systematically root out Kim’s supporters. Meanwhile the American advisers had constantly to keep Rhee’s forces from crossing the border to invade the north.

In 1948 guerrilla war broke out against the Rhee regime on the southern island of Cheju, the population of which ultimately rose in wholesale revolt. The suppression of the rebellion was guided by many American agents soon to become part of the Central Intelligence Agency and by military advisers. Eventually the entire population was removed to the coast and kept in guarded compounds and between 20,000 and 30,000 villagers died. Simultaneously elements of the ROK army refused to participate in this war against their own people and this mutiny was brutally suppressed by those ROK soldiers who would obey such orders. Over one thousand of the mutineers escaped to join Kim’s guerrillas in the mountains.

Though Washington claimed that these rebellions were fomented by the communists no evidence surfaced that the Soviets provided anything other than moral support. Most of the rebels captured or killed had Japanese or American weapons.

In North Korea the political system had evolved in response to decades of foreign occupation and war. Though it was always assumed to be a Soviet satellite, North Korea more nearly bears comparison to Tito’s Yugoslavia. The North Koreans were always able to balance the tensions between the Soviets and the Chinese to their own advantage. During the period when the Comintern exercised most influence over national communist parties not a single Korean communist served in any capacity and the number of Soviet advisers in the north was never high.

Nineteen forty-nine marked a watershed year. The Chinese Communist Revolution, the Soviet Atomic Bomb, the massive reorganization of the National Security State in the U.S. all occurred that year. In 1950 Washington issued its famous National Security Paper-68 (NSC-68) which outlined the agenda for a global anti-communist campaign, requiring the tripling of the American defense budget. Congress balked at this all-encompassing blueprint when in the deathless words of Secretary of State Dean Acheson “Thank God! Korea came along.” Only months before Acheson had made a speech in which he pointedly omitted Korea from America’s “Defense perimeter.”

The Korean War seemed to vindicate everything written and said about the” international communist conspiracy. In popular myth on June 25, 1950 the North Korean Army suddenly attacked without warning, overwhelming surprised ROK defenders. In fact the entire 38th Parallel had been progressively militarized and there had been numerous cross border incursions by both sides going back to 1949. On numerous occasions Syngman Rhee had to be restrained by American advisers from invading the north. The Korean civil war was all but inevitable. Given postwar American plans for access globally to resources, markets and cheaper labor power any form of national liberation, communist or liberal democratic, was to be opposed. Acheson and his second, Dean Rusk, told President Truman that “we must draw the line here!” Truman decided to request authorization for American intervention from the United Nations and bypassed Congress thereby leading to widespread opposition and, later, a return to Republican rule under Dwight Eisenhower..

Among the remaining mysteries of the UN decision to undertake the American led military effort to reject North Korea from the south was the USSR’s failure to make use of its veto in the Security Council. The Soviet ambassador was ostensibly boycotting the meetings in protest of the UN’s refusal to seat the Chinese communists as China’s official delegation. According to Bruce Cumings though, evidence exists that Stalin ordered the Soviet ambassador to abstain. Why? The UN resolution authorizing war could have been prevented. At that moment the Sino-Soviet split was already in evidence and Stalin may have wished to weaken China, something which actually happened as a result of that nation’s subsequent entry into the war. Or he may have wished that cloaking the UN mission under the U.S. flag would have revealed the UN to be largely under the control of the United States, which indeed it was. What is known is that Stalin refused to allow Soviet combat troops and reduced shipments of arms to Kim’s forces. Later, however Soviet pilots would engage Americans in the air. The Chinese were quick to condemn the UN action as “American imperialism” and warned of dire consequences if China itself were threatened.

The war went badly at first for the U.S. despite numerical advantages in forces. Rout after rout followed with the ROK in full retreat. Meanwhile tens of thousands of southern guerrillas who had originated in peoples’ committees fought the Americans and the ROK. At one point the North Koreans were in control of Seoul and seemed about to drive American forces into the sea. At that point the commander- in-chief of all UN forces, General Douglas MacArthur,  announced that he saw unique opportunities for the deployment of atomic weapons. This call was taken up by many in Congress.

Truman was loathe to introduce nukes and instead authorized MacArthur to conduct the famous landings at Inchon in September 1950 with few losses by the Marine Corps vaunted 1st Division. This threw North Korean troops into disarray and MacArthur began pushing them back across the 38th Parallel, the mandate imposed by the UN resolution. But the State Department claimed that the border was not recognized under international law and therefore the UN mandate had no real legal bearing. It was this that MacArthur claimed gave him the right to take the war into the north. Though the North Koreans had suffered a resounding defeat in the south, they withdrew into northern mountain redoubts forcing the American forces that followed them into bloody and costly combat, led Americans into a trap.

The Chinese had said from the beginning that any approach of foreign troops toward their border would result in “dire consequences.” Fearing an invasion of Manchuria to crush the nascent communist revolution the Chinese foreign minister, Zhou En-Lai declared that China “will not supinely tolerate seeing their neighbors invaded by the imperialists.” MacArthur sneered at this warning. “… They have no airforce…if the Chinese tried to get down to Pyongyang there would be a great slaughter…we are the best.” He then ordered airstrikes to lay waste thousands of square miles of northern Korea bordering China and ordered infantry divisions ever closer to its border.

It was the terrible devastation of this bombing campaign, worse than anything seen during World War II short of Hiroshima and Nagasaki that to this day dominates North Korea’s relations with the United States and drives its determination never to submit to any American diktat.

General Curtis Lemay directed this onslaught. It was he who had firebombed Tokyo in March 1945 saying it was “about time we stopped swatting at flies and gone after the manure pile.” It was he who later said that the US “ought to bomb North Vietnam back into the stone age.” Remarking about his desire to lay waste to North Korea he said “We burned down every town in North Korea and South Korea too.” Lemay was by no means exaggerating.

On November 27, 1950 hundreds of thousands of Chinese troops suddenly crossed the border into North Korea completely overwhelming US forces. Acheson said this was the “worst defeat of American forces since Bull Run.” One famous incident was the battle at the Chosin Reservoir, where 50,000 US marines were surrounded. As they escaped their enclosure they  said they were “advancing to the rear” but in fact all American forces were being routed.

Panic took hold in Washington. Truman now said use of A-bombs was under “active consideration.” MacArthur demanded the bombs… As he put it in his memoirs:

I would have dropped between thirty and fifty atomic bombs…strung across the neck of Manchuria…and spread behind us – from the Sea of Japan to the Yellow Sea- a belt of radioactive cobalt. It has an active life of between 60 and 120 years.

Cobalt it should be noted is at least 100 times more radioactive than uranium.

He also expressed a desire for chemicals and gas.

It is well known that MacArthur was fired for insubordination for publically announcing his desire to use nukes. Actually, Truman himself put the nukes at ready and threatened to use them if China launched air raids against American forces. But he did not want to put them under MacArthur’s command because he feared MacArthur would conduct a preemptive strike against China anyway.

By June 1951, one year after the beginning of the war, the communists had pushed UN forces back across the 38th parallel. Chinese ground forces might have been able to push the entire UN force off the peninsula entirely but that would not have negated US naval and air forces, and would have probably resulted in nuclear strikes against the Chinese mainland and that brought the real risk of Soviet entry and all out nuclear exchanges. So from this point on the war became one of attrition, much like the trench warfare of World War I. casualties continued to be high on both sides for the duration of the war which lasted until 1953 when an armistice without reunification was signed.

Of course the victims suffering worst were the civilians. In 1951 the U.S. initiated “Operation Strangle” which officialls estimated killed at least 3 million people on both sides of the 38th parallel, but the figure is probably closer to 4 million. We do not know how many Chinese died – either solders or civilians killed in cross border bombings.

The question of whether the U.S. carried out germ warfare has been raised but has never been fully proved or disproved. The North accused the U.S. of dropping bombs laden with cholera, anthrax, plague, and encephalitis and hemorrhagic fever, all of which turned up among soldiers and civilians in the north. Some American prisoners of war confessed to such war crimes but these were dismissed as evidence of torture by North Korea on Americans. However, none of the U.S. POWs who did confess and were later repatriated were allowed to meet the press. A number of investigations were carried out by scientists from friendly western countries. One of the most prominent concluded the charges were true. At this time the US was engaged in top secret germ-warfare research with captured Nazi and Japanese germ warfare experts, and also experimenting with Sarin, despite its ban by the Geneva Convention. Washington accused the communists of introducing germ warfare.

Napalm was used extensively, completely and utterly destroying the northern capital of Pyongyang. By 1953 American pilots were returning to carriers and bases claiming there were no longer any significant targets in all of North Korea to bomb. In fact a very large percentage of the northern population was by then living in tunnels dug by hand underground. A British journalist wrote that the northern population was living “a troglodyte existence.”In the Spring of 1953 US warplanes hit five of the largest dams along the Yalu river completely inundating and killing Pyongyang’s harvest of rice. Air Force documents reveal calculated premeditation saying that “Attacks in May will be most effective psychologically because it was the end of the rice-transplanting season before the roots could become completely embedded.” Flash floods scooped out hundreds of square miles of vital food producing valleys and killed untold numbers of farmers.

At Nuremberg after WWII, Nazi officers who carried out similar attacks on the dikes of Holland, creating a mass famine in 1944, were tried as criminals and some were executed for their crimes.

So after a horrific war Korea returned to the status quo ante bellum in terms of political boundaries but it was completely devastated, especially the north.

I submit that it is the collective memory of all of what I’ve described that animates North Korea’s policies toward the US today which has nuclear weapons on constant alert and stations almost 30,000 forces at the ready. Remember, a state of war still exists and has since 1953.

While South Korea received heavy American investment in the industries fleeing the United States in search of cheaper labor and new markets it was nevertheless ruled until quite recently by military dictatorships scarcely different than those of the north. For its part the north constructed its economy along five-year plans and collectivized its agriculture. While it never enjoyed the sort of consumer society that now characterizes some of South Korea, its GDP grew substantially until the collapse of communism globally brought about the withdrawal of all foreign aid to north Korea.

During the late 1980s and early 1990s, as some American policymakers took note of the north’s growing weakness  Secretary  of Defense Cheney and Paul Wolfowitz talked openly of using force finally to settle the question of Korean reunification and the claimed threat to international peace posed by North Korea.

In 1993 the Clinton Administration discovered that North Korea was constructing a nuclear processing plant and also developing medium range missiles. The Pentagon desired to destroy these facilities but that would mean wholesale war so the administration fostered an agreement whereby North Korea would stand down in return for the provision of oil and other economic aid. When in 2001, after the events of 9-11, the Bush II neo-conservatives militarized policy and declared North Korea to be an element of the “axis of evil.” All bets were now off. In that context North Korea withdrew from the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, reasoning that nuclear weapons were the only way possible to prevent a full scale attack by the US in the future. Given a stark choice between another war with the US and all that would entail this decision seems hardly surprising. Under no circumstances could any westerner reasonably expect, after all the history I’ve described, that the North Korean regime would simply submit to any ultimatums by the US, by far the worst enemy Korea ever had measured by the damage inflicted on the entirety of the Korean peninsula.

(Acknowledgement to Bruce Cumings and I.F. Stone)

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What's Left

April 30, 2017

By Stephen Gowans

A day before my book Washington’s Long War on Syria was sent to the press, I read a short essay by a notable Canadian, Norman Bethune. The essay was titled Wounds. Bethune was a skilled and innovative surgeon who was at the forefront of the fight for public health care in Canada. But he’s mainly known for participating in two wars in the late 1930s: The Spanish Civil War and the Second Sino-Japanese War. In the Second Sino-Japanese War Bethune joined Mao’s forces as a frontline surgeon in the resistance against Japanese efforts to colonize China.

In an April 27, 2017 Telesur interview, Syrian President Bashar al-Assad argued that US presidents “merely implement” policies formulated by US “financial institutions,” “big arms and oil companies,” as well as “the intelligence agencies” and “the Pentagon.” It was in China that Bethune wrote his essay, a…

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